Setting up Django with uWSGI and Nginx

A tutorial is aimed at the Django user who wants to set up a production web server.

Posted by Dusign on 2020-03-05
Words 1.7k and Reading Time 8 Minutes
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This tutorial is aimed at the Django user who wants to set up a production web server. It takes you through the steps required to set up Django so that it works nicely with uWSGI and nginx.

Django is a high-level Python Web framework that encourages rapid development and clean, pragmatic design.

nginx (pronounced engine-x) is a free, open-source, high-performance HTTP server and reverse proxy, as well as an IMAP/POP3 proxy server.

1、准备好 linux 服务器,笔者使用的是 centos8,准备好开发好的 django 项目。

2、安装 pyenv 以及 pyenv-virtualenv,配置 pyehon 开发环境,具体教程见笔者前面的博客 Usage of Virtualenv

3、安装 nginx 并且关闭 selinux,打开防火墙的 80 端口、8000端口、8080端口等常用端口,linux 的防火墙操作方法见我前面的博客 Some Setting of Linux,之后通过命令

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service nginx start

启动 nginx 服务,然后在 linux 本地和其他电脑访问 linux 的 IP ,如果出现 nginx 的启动界面,说明 nginx 工作正常。(如果没有安装桌面的话,本地可以用 lynx、elinks、w3m等文本浏览器访问测试)。

4、安装mysql ,方法见我前面的博客 MySQL Tutorial

5、安装 uwsgi ,通过 pip 安装,如果安装失败,请安装 python-devel
如果在虚拟环境中安装失败的话,选择带有 -dev 后缀的 python 版本(下载特别慢,最好晚上用网的人少了再下载)。

6、测试uwsgi
让我们从一个简单的 “Hello World” 开始,创建文件 test.py,代码如下:

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def application(env, start_response):
start_response('200 OK', [('Content-Type','text/html')])
return [b"Hello World"]

uWSGI Python 加载器将会搜索的默认函数 application 。
接下来我们启动 uWSGI 来运行一个 HTTP 服务器,将程序部署在 HTTP 端口 9090 上:
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uwsgi --http :9090 --wsgi-file test.py

访问 ip:9090 之后看到 “Hello World” ,则说明安装成功

7、django 中如果使用到 mysql 数据库,请安装 mysqlclient,如果出现如下错误

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Collecting mysqlclient
Using cached mysqlclient-1.4.6.tar.gz (85 kB)
ERROR: Command errored out with exit status 1:
command: /home/user/.pyenv/versions/3.8-dev/envs/myow/bin/python3 -c 'import sys, setuptools, tokenize; sys.argv[0] = '"'"'/tmp/pip-install-5fgysz1z/mysqlclient/setup.py'"'"'; __file__='"'"'/tmp/pip-install-5fgysz1z/mysqlclient/setup.py'"'"';f=getattr(tokenize, '"'"'open'"'"', open)(__file__);code=f.read().replace('"'"'\r\n'"'"', '"'"'\n'"'"');f.close();exec(compile(code, __file__, '"'"'exec'"'"'))' egg_info --egg-base /tmp/pip-install-5fgysz1z/mysqlclient/pip-egg-info
cwd: /tmp/pip-install-5fgysz1z/mysqlclient/
Complete output (12 lines):
/bin/sh: mysql_config: command not found
/bin/sh: mariadb_config: command not found
/bin/sh: mysql_config: command not found
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<string>", line 1, in <module>
File "/tmp/pip-install-5fgysz1z/mysqlclient/setup.py", line 16, in <module>
metadata, options = get_config()
File "/tmp/pip-install-5fgysz1z/mysqlclient/setup_posix.py", line 61, in get_config
libs = mysql_config("libs")
File "/tmp/pip-install-5fgysz1z/mysqlclient/setup_posix.py", line 29, in mysql_config
raise EnvironmentError("%s not found" % (_mysql_config_path,))
OSError: mysql_config not found
----------------------------------------
ERROR: Command errored out with exit status 1: python setup.py egg_info Check the logs for full command output.

原因是用mysql数据库的话需要安装 mysql-devel(centos) 或 mysql-dev(ubuntu),若是 mariadb 数据库,则需要安装 mariadb-devel。

8、在虚拟环境中导入自己的开发环境
导出开发环境 pip freeze > VIRTUALENV_NAME.txt
导入开发环境 pip install -r VIRTUALENV_NAME.txt

9、准备好 django 项目,在对应的虚拟环境下通过 python manage.py runserver 运行,如果访问正常,说明 django 项目没问题
然后通过

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uwsgi --http :8000 --module PROJECTNAME.wsgi

运行测试,其中 8000 可以修改为你自己想用的端口
如果访问报错 404,可能是你的 uwsgi 没有在项目对应的虚拟环境下运行, 在你的运行记录中找下面的这两行,看看路径与你的项目路径以及虚拟环境路径是否一样
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current working directory: /home/user/Project/myow
detected binary path: /home/user/.pyenv/versions/3.8-dev/envs/myow/bin/uwsgi

如果不一样,请切换到相应的路径下运行,如果访问正常,说明django与uwsgi运行没问题。

10、在项目目录中新建 nginx 的配置文件,并且在 /etc/nginx/conf.d/ 中建立软连接,nginx.conf 的内容如下

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# the upstream component nginx needs to connect to
upstream django {
# server unix:///home/user/Project/myow/myow.sock; # for a file socket
server 127.0.0.1:8001; # for a web port socket (we'll use this first)

}

# configuration of the server
server {
# the port your site will be served on
listen 8000;
# the domain name it will serve for
server_name _; # substitute your machine's IP address or FQDN
charset utf-8;

# max upload size
client_max_body_size 75M; # adjust to taste

# Django media
location /media {
alias /home/user/Project/myow/media; # your Django project's media files - amend as required

}

location /static {
alias /home/user/Project/myow/static; # your Django project's static files - amend as required

}

# Finally, send all non-media requests to the Django server.
location / {
uwsgi_pass django;
include /etc/nginx/uwsgi_params; # the uwsgi_params file you installed

}

}

用上面建立的 test.py 文件测试 nginx 和 uwsgi 是否工作正常
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uwsgi --socket :8001 --wsgi-file test.py

端口对应 nginx 配置文件中监听的端口
然后在浏览器中测试,输入 localhost:8000 ,如果看到 ”Hello World“ 则说明 uwsgi 和 nginx 工作正常。

11、上面的测试都正常之后,我们使用 unix sockets 代替端口,修改 nginx 配置文件中的 server 如下

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server unix:///home/user/Project/myow/myow.sock; # for a file socket
# server 127.0.0.1:8001; # for a web port socket (we'll use this first)

然后运行uwsgi
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uwsgi --socket test.sock --wsgi-file test.py

使用浏览器输入 localhost:8000 ,看是否工作正常,如果报错的话请检查 uwsgi 和 nginx 对当前工作目录有没有权限
如果 uwsgi 对当前目录没有权限的话请使用如下启动
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uwsgi --socket test.sock --wsgi-file test.py --chmod-socket=666 # (very permissive)

或者
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uwsgi --socket test.sock --wsgi-file test.py --chmod-socket=664 # (more sensible)

如果 nginx 对 sock 没有权限,请提高 nginx 的权限,修改 nginx 的配置文件中的 user 为更高权限的用户
然后再运行,会在浏览器中看到 “Hello World”

12、使用 uwsgi 和 nginx 运行 django

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uwsgi --socket /your/project.sock --module project.wsgi --chmod-socket=664

通过浏览器访问,如果报错 DisallowedHost at / Invalid HTTP_HOST header: ,说明你的 django 只有本地 ip 访问的权限,需要修改 setting.py 中的 ALLOWED_HOSTS
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ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['*']     # 所有的ip都可以访问

13、使用 ini 文件启动 uwsgi
新建 uwsgi 的启动文件,uwsgi.ini 的内容如下:

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[uwsgi]

# Django-related settings
# the base directory (full path)
chdir = /home/user/Project/myow
# Django's wsgi file
module = myow.wsgi
# the virtualenv (full path)
home = /home/user/.pyenv/versions/myow

# uwsgi 启动用户名和用户组
# uid = www
# gid = www

# process-related settings
# master
master = true

# maximum number of worker processes
processes = 10
safe-pidfile = /tmp/myow-uwsgi.pid

# the socket (use the full path to be safe
socket = /home/user/Project/myow/myow.sock

# ... with appropriate permissions - may be needed
chmod-socket = 664

# clear environment on exit
vacuum = true

# 启用线程
# enable-threads = true

# 设置自动中断时间
# harakiri =30

# 设置缓冲
# post-buffering = 4096

# 设置静态文件
# static-map = /static=//www/wwwroot/mysite/static

# 设置日志目录
# daemonize = /var/log/uwsgi/myow.log

uwsgi 的启动操作是通过包含主进程号的文件进行设置的,前提是要在 uwsgi 的启动文件中设置保存主进程的 pid
启动 uwsgi
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uwsgi  --ini  uwsgi.ini

停止 uwsgi
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uwsgi --stop /tmp/myow-uwsgi.pid

重启 uwsgi
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uwsgi --reload /tmp/myow-uwsgi.pid


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